Translated from Latin, the word navigation means sailing on a ship, and the word Lotsia has a Dutch origin and is translated as the management of the ship. Consequently, navigation, as a science, studies the methods and means of carrying out the navigation of the vessel on the selected safe paths with the highest accuracy. Lotzia, on the other hand, is exploring ways and means of choosing these safest routes through navigational charts, navigation AIDS and meteorological information sources. In General, in practice, these two Sciences are one inseparable whole, and we will continue for brevity and clarity to speak simply-navigation, referring to both.
Navigation in yachting is primarily the ability to navigate the sea, to determine where your ship is, to be able to put this place on the map and control the course. To perform such tasks, it is necessary to clearly understand what our planet Earth is, how it moves, how people have learned to depict it and its parts on paper — that is, how navigation maps are created, how to use these maps.
The most ancient ideas of people about the shape of our Earth are extremely interesting. At first they thought the Earth was flat and had an edge. Then, probably, having paid, after all, attention to the objects hiding in a way behind horizon, came to a domed form. The whole Grand structure was successively supported by three whales, three elephants, the shoulders of the Atlanteans, and similar non-engineering structures. Truth, justice sake of should recognize, that some, the most «advanced», representatives then science all -??? guessed, that Earth simply-plainly, round, but preferred about this keep quiet, lest not prove on a fire, which waited in those distant times dissenters. Later, when the opinion of the earth’s roundness slowly took root among pundits, discussions broke out on the topic — why the Sun, Moon and stars move in the sky and how it happens.
It took a long time for people to come to a modern understanding of the structure of the Solar system. So, today, in science it is believed that the Earth is round, rotates with the other planets of the Solar System around the Sun, which, in turn, rotates around the center of the Galaxy, and so on indefinitely. However, the laws of space we are not very interested in, they are engaged in nautical astronomy-a separate science, the concept of which is also vital if you are going to go on a yacht on the seas.
We’ll talk about our mother Earth now. Its form, strictly speaking, is not very correct. Even in the century before last it was established that the Earth has a special form peculiar only to it. This form is called a geoid. A geoid is similar in shape to an ellipsoid of rotation — a regular geometric figure obtained by rotating an ellipse around one of its axes.
Therefore, for practical purposes, it is assumed that the earth has the form of an ellipsoid of rotation. So it is more convenient to make maps and solve navigation and astronomical problems in yachting.
But since the earth’s ellipsoid of rotation is an artificially accepted geometric body, its elements must be calculated as close as possible to the real size of the globe.
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